2019 Autism Statistics: New Recent Study Shows Increase

January 28, 2019 4 Comments

autism statistics blog post

In November 2018, the National Survey of Children’s Health released results from their recent study on autism spectrum disorder (ASD), highlighting updated statistics on the prevalence of autism in the United States.

Previously, in April of 2018, the CDC reported that 1 in 59 children in the US had a diagnosis of autism. The current study, however, updates this figure and estimates that roughly 1 in 40 children in the US have a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

Defining Autism

Before we jump into the research, let’s do a quick review of the characteristics of an autism spectrum disorder.

Autism is a developmental disorder that has an impact on behavior, in particular, communication, social skills, and daily living skills. Some children with autism also engage in repetitive and restrictive behavior such as repeating words or phrases, sensory sensitivities, and heightened reactions to changes in routine.

Autism is called a developmental disorder because symptoms first start to appear within the first two years of life, with many appearing before the child turns six months old.

Autism is defined on a spectrum because the presenting symptoms vary from child to child regarding severity and which skills are affected. Some children may solely struggle with social and communication skills, while others may have difficulty across all symptom areas.

There is no direct cause of autism, with most researchers concluding it is likely caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Autism is a lifelong disorder, but there are many promising treatment options including medication to manage certain symptoms and behavioral, psychological, and occupational therapies that can help both the individual and families cope throughout the lifespan.

CDC Autism Statistics 

Before the research published in the fall of 2018, the CDC highlighted data in regards to autism rates.

Before we examine the most recently published study, let’s review some of the CDC’s findings, updated in April of 2018.

  • The CDC’s most recent report estimates the rate of autism as 1 in 59 children
  • ASD has been reported in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups
  • In terms of autism rates by gender, ASD is 4 times more common in boys when compared to girls
  • When analyzing autism rates by country, studies in Asia, Europe, and North American have all determined an average prevalence rate between 1 and 2%
  • Among the states included in the study, New Jersey had the highest rate of autism by state, while Alabama had the lowest. Researchers indicate this is likely due to differences in autism tracking and monitoring requirements by state 
  • Approximately 44% of children with ASD have average to above average intellectual ability
  • Diagnosis of autism at the age of 2 can be reliable, valid, and stable throughout the child’s life. However, most children do not receive an official autism diagnosis until after the age of 4

New Research (2019 Update)

Autism Rates Graph


In November of 2018, a new study was published by the government indicating that the prevalence rate of autism is now approximately 1 in 40 children. This is a striking increase when you compare this rate with the rates found by the CDC. 

To conduct this new research, a survey method was utilized with more than 43,000 parents of children aged 3 to 17. The survey asked whether or not their child had ever been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and whether the child still struggled with an ASD.

The results showed that 2.5% of parents surveyed indicated their child had been diagnosed with an ASD and still currently have the diagnosis. This amounts to approximately 1.5 million children in the United States.

When comparing these rates to the previously published data, it should be considered that different methods of data collection were used, which could lead to varying results. For example, the CDC utilized school and medical record data collection, vs the survey method used in the current study.

Summary of other notable findings from new research

The newly published research in November 2018 also analyzed autism rates in relation to gender, income level, medication, and other treatment approaches. Below is a summary of these findings:

  • Boys in the study were 3.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with autism when compared to girls
  • Rates of autism were higher among low-income families
  • Children born preterm were more likely to be diagnosed than those who were not
  • Children born in the US were more likely to be diagnosed than those born in another country
  • The prevalence of ASD was 47% higher for children with single mothers when compared to children in 2-parent, married households
  • 27% of children diagnosed used medication to assist with symptom management
  • 64% of children had received some type of behavioral therapy within the last 12 months
  • Children with ASD are more likely to suffer from co-occurring disorders, such as asthma, gastrointestinal problems, and seizures.
  • The cost of caring for a child with ASD (medical and non-medical services), is $17,000 per year more than caring for a child without ASD
  • When compared to children with other emotional, behavioral, or developmental disorders, children with autism were more likely to have seen a specialist, receive mental health services and have a special education plan or early intervention services. Interestingly, they were 44% more likely to have difficulty receiving mental health treatment, 23% less likely to have a designated doctor for their needs, and 24% less likely to receive proper case management and care coordination services.

How do these results impact families of children with an ASD?

Overall, when considering the research, it shows that autism rates are continuing to increase in the United States. It is likely that the increase in autism prevalence is due to many factors.

First, autism is increasingly becoming more well-known and discussed by the general public, health professionals, and parents, which helps improve awareness of potential symptoms. Also, there has been an emphasis on increased screening for autism spectrum disorder, as early intervention has shown to improve outcomes.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that potential risk factors are discussed at every well-child visit, with official screening happening at 18 and 24 months. Finally, the diagnostic criteria have widened over the last several years, likely including more children under the ASD diagnosis than before.

Researchers suggest that each of these factors combined (and likely additional unknown factors) have all contributed to the increase in reported ASD prevalence.

This new research is also helpful in that it further highlighted children at a higher risk for autism in relation to gender, socioeconomic status, and other co-occurring diagnoses. This further demonstrates the need for early screening and intervention for children specifically in these groups.

Additionally, the survey results emphasized the difficulties many families with children with autism experience when trying to obtain proper services for their child.

Children with autism often require various types of treatment, including medication management, behavioral or occupational therapies, psychological services, and special education services. This puts them at a disadvantage in terms of trying to find a medical home and can be an additional burden on families.

The new findings help us recognize the need for greater coordination of care within the healthcare system and beyond to ensure the needs of children and families are being met.

Concluding Thoughts

Autism rates in the United States have increased steadily over the past 10 years.

In 2008, the rates were estimated to be 1 in 125 children and now approximately 1 in 40 children are affected.

As discussed, this is likely due to numerous reasons, including increased awareness of autism and improved diagnostic procedures.

To summarize, below are the most important takeaways from this research in regards to the impact that autism has on children and their families.

  • There is a large discrepancy in terms of services needed for these children and the coordination of care received. It is important to recognize that children with autism and their families have broad needs that will likely occur across the lifespan and care coordination is essential in ensuring these services are meeting the needs and helping ease the burdens these children and families face.
  • Standard screening procedures for all children is imperative to help identify children with an ASD. In addition, early screening often means children are diagnosed at a younger age. Early intervention services have been shown to be effective at improving behavioral outcomes for children with an ASD.
  • There are a variety of treatment and medication options available for children with an ASD, however, each child will have their own unique needs and certain therapies that are helpful. Health professionals should be aware of this and open to helping families explore their treatment options.  
  • Families of children with an ASD often experience financial burdens due to their child’s additional healthcare and health maintenance needs. This is important to note so that stakeholders and healthcare professionals can advocate for these needs and help them access additional financial support whenever possible.

We hope this article was helpful at breaking down the most recent autism statistics and more importantly, we hope that it highlighted what this means for children and families affected by autism.

What are your thoughts on the increase in rates of Autism? 

About the Author

Shea Brogren, MOT, OTR/L

Shea Brogren, MOT, OTR/L, is an occupational therapist with over three years of experience in pediatrics and child/adolescent mental health and has also worked as an adjunct lecturer at the University of North Dakota. Shea has a special interest in program development and developed and implemented occupational therapy programming at a residential treatment center for children. She now practices in an outpatient setting. Her primary area of interest involves working with children who have experienced developmental trauma. Shea has advanced training in: SMART treatment (Sensorimotor Arousal Regulation Treatment), the Zones of Regulation, using sensory-based interventions to address trauma, infant mental health, attachment, and arousal regulation related to trauma disorders.

 

 

References:

Kogan et al. (2018). The prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder among US Children. Journal of Pediatrics, 142(6).

Centers for Disease Control (2018). Data and Statistics: Autism Spectrum Disorder. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov




4 Responses

itidal Abu Agha
itidal Abu Agha

May 21, 2019

Very interesting article. I advocate for individuals with autism in Jordan and find it so sad to see the increase in number and the lack of services. Parents and children are both struggling and fighting for proper diagnosis, inclusion, training and financial help from the policy makers.

Vera
Vera

May 07, 2019

What about vaccines that kids get since they were born?
Why they give vaccines to newborns without immunity system?
In USA most high rate of autism, and in other developing countries.
Why not in India, or poor African countries, where they don’t have vaccines?
Ask yourself!

Nicole
Nicole

March 19, 2019

Hey Wanda,

Thanks for your thoughts on the article. There is definitely a lot we don’t know. All we can do is keep researching and trying to find ways to help improve the lives of those with autism.

All the best,
Nicole
Harkla Happiness Ninja

Wanda  Meeks
Wanda Meeks

February 04, 2019

I think it’s ridiculous to think that it’s because we’re screening our children more it is something environmental we have to figure this out.

Leave a comment

Comments will be approved before showing up.


Also in Special Needs

stim toys blog post
The 10 Best Fidget and Stim Toys To Improve Focus in Children with Autism

May 18, 2019 2 Comments

Do you have a child or know someone that has autism stimming behavior? It turns out, that simply buying the latest fidget toy isn't always the most effective toy to get them. Read about how to choose the best stim toy for your child in our article.
Read More
Ultimate list of sensory toys
The Ultimate List of Sensory Toys

May 16, 2019

Sensory activities can help regulate the sensory system for children and adults with sensory processing disorder. Check out our list that is organized by each of the sensory systems!
Read More
Life planning for your special needs child blog post
Life Planning for Your Special Needs Child-PART 2: Finding extra financial help

May 13, 2019

How do you financially plan for the future when you have a child with special needs? There are a variety of social services, depending upon what state you reside, that can assist with the cost of care for your special needs child. In Part 2 of our series about Life Planning for Your Special Needs Child, we show you how to find that extra financial help so you can be prepared for the future.
Read More